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6.6 Sex And The City

Finally, young women see education as a strategic access door to wage labor and modern lifestyles, which mostly means being educated, living in a city or abroad, and participating in the wage labor force. Harber (2014) maintains that the promise of access to the labor market, as well as of better jobs and income, is at the core of schooling discourses and constitutes one of the main drivers in the promotion of education in Nepal.

6.6 Sex and the City

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Within mainstream development discourse, the city is imagined and portrayed as full of opportunities for women to engage global economies. When asking the young girls from Gaun about their expectations for the future, the majority of them aimed to live in Kathmandu or abroad. Many hoped to keep studying or to work as teachers, nurses, or social workers. Education is therefore seen as a useful tool to access to better job opportunities and gain sources of income (Castellsagué and Carrasco 2020). We found these common ideas embedded in notions of development such as productivity and the promotion of an urban-centered economy that prevail in Nepal to have particular gendered interpretation among our participants.

As Mingma explains, even having success in school does not guarantee that women will have access to formal jobs in the city. Therefore, the expectations that link schooling in the urban environment to direct access to productive jobs are not always fulfilled.

We see how working beyond the household continues to be meaningful for Sherpa women. While women are attracted to city life for the infrastructure and less work burden, they also do not settle for a role that only encompasses reproductive work and domestic chores.

Justin Theroux plays Melvin "Mel" Wulf alongside Felicity Jones's Ginsburg. He is a representative for the ACLU. Fans perhaps say the movie presents an interesting examination of an important moment of change in U.S. history.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study and randomly selected and surveyed general population and occupational groups from 6 July to 24 August 2020, in 3 cities in Mozambique. Anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were measured using a point-of-care rapid test. The prevalence was weighted for population (by age, sex, and city) and adjusted for test sensitivity and specificity.

Studies have found a lower prevalence of smoking among religious populations in comparison with general society (Ahrenfeldt et al. 2018; Gillum et al. 2008; Nunziata and Toffolutti 2019; Whooley et al. 2002). According to Koenig (2012), about 90% of studies that have examined the relationship between religion and/or spirituality and smoking have found statistically significant inverse associations between religious involvement and negative health behaviors. Bowie et al. (2017) showed that attending religious services served as a buffer against cigarette use among Black men in the United States who attended almost every day or weekly compared with men who reported never attending religious services. Furthermore, Gillum (2005) reported that in a national sample of American smokers aged 20 and over, those who frequently attended religious services smoked significantly fewer cigarettes a day than infrequent or never-attenders, independent of ethnicity, age, or sex.

In 2017, the populations of Bnei Brak and Ramat Gan numbered 195,000 and 154,000 residents, respectively, with 8% and 21% of the population of each city, respectively, aged 65 years or older. The current study utilized the databases of Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS), the second-largest healthcare maintenance organization (HMO) in Israel, which provides medical care to roughly a quarter of the Israeli population. Almost half of the residents of both cities were enrolled with MHS (47.5% and 46.9% of Bnei Brak and Ramat Gan residents, respectively).

UO religiosity was defined as a dichotomous variable (UO/non-UO) based on the probability of being UO. This division is identical to the division based on the city where the participants reside. The variable was divided into four categories, low, medium, high, and very high. Since 100% of the Ramat Gan residents and none of the Bnei Brak residents were categorized as low UO homogeneity, but 85% of Bnei Brak residents were categorized as high UO homogeneity, residents of Bnei Brak were considered to be UO, while residents of Ramat Gan were considered to be non-UO.

The first stage of the analysis examines the distribution of all study variables for the total sample, stratified by the city of residence. Differences between cities, as well as the statistical significance of the differences, were measured for each variable using chi-squared analysis (see Table 1).

For the fourth stage, multivariate binary regression models were utilized to examine the degree to which each variable predicted smoking. In this analysis, two models were used, and each was adjusted for age. The following variables were input into the first model: city of residence, sex, and RSES. In the second model, the following variables were input: city of residence, sex, RSES, the interaction between sex and city of residence, and the interaction between city of residence and RSES (see Table 4).

The statistical significance of the interactions between sex and city of residence and between city of residence and RSES led to the fifth stage, where a multivariate analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between RSES and smoking status. A multivariate binary logistic regression model was run, which was adjusted for age. The study population was categorized into four groups based on sex and city of residence (Bnei Brak women, Bnei Brak men, Ramat Gan women, Ramat Gan men). An age-adjusted model which included RSES was run separately for each group (see Table 5).

Considering that the research objective was to examine the association between SES and smoking, as well as the significant interactions between sex and city of residence and between SES and city of residence in predicting smoking, we chose to examine each group separately. The SES that was examined in this case was RSES.

Data for the study were collected from an anonymous database of 31,170 MHS policyholders aged 50 years and older for the years 2015 and 2016. Of the total number of policyholders, 11,509 were listed as residents of Bnei Brak and 18,891 as residents of Ramat Gan. The population distribution for each city revealed a number of distinct differences with regard to distribution by sex, age, SES, and level of UO religiosity.

A separate analysis of the distribution of smoking status among residents of each city was conducted based on demographic variables (see Table 3). Higher smoking prevalence was found among Ramat Gan residents than among Bnei Brak residents (25.2% vs. 11.7%, respectively).

Our study presents three major findings. First, the prevalence of smoking is lower among the Bnei Brak population than the Ramat Gan population. Second, the disparity between the prevalence of smoking among men and women is greater within the Bnei Brak population than in the Ramat Gan population. Third, there are significant interactions between sex and city of residence (Bnei Brak/Ramat Gan) and between city of residence and RSES, and the indication of a different directional correlation between differing SES relative to the place of residence and smoking. An inverse correlation between SES relative to the place of residence and smoking was found among the non-UO population, while the UO population showed a lower prevalence of smoking among those of lower SES than those with medium or high SES.

The data about Maccabi Healthcare non-policyholders were not available, and it was not possible to examine the differences in the characteristics of those insured with various healthcare service providers in the city of residence.

The accompanying datasets include a wider range of data on the characteristics of cigarette smokers from the APS, including estimates by socio-economic status, relationship status, housing tenure, country of birth, ethnicity, and religion.

Across cohorts, the majority of women were minorities (ACCESS = 91%, PRISM = 80%) and approximately one-quarter to one-third had less than a high school education (ACCESS = 35%, PRISM = 23%). Table 1 provides additional sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics of each cohort stratified by fetal sex. Prenatal and postnatal EPDS scores were log-normally distributed and moderately correlated (ACCESS: ρ = 0.30, p ρ = 0.39, p

In contrast to findings from studies conducted in Western cultures, research conducted in Asia (China, India), Africa (Nigeria), and Turkey has reported female infant sex is positively related to PPD [65,66,67], with qualitative research supporting a role for male gender preference [68]. For example, a prospective cohort study based in China found an increased odds of PPD among women who gave birth to a female compared to a male infant; however, the association did not hold following adjustment for social support after childbirth [69]. In the United States (U.S.), there is limited research to tie PPD with gender preference; however, we cannot definitively rule out the potential contribution of cultural factors to our findings. For example, econometrics research has identified several differences between U.S. parents of girls versus boys, including a higher divorce rate and differential monetary investment in families [70]. Other research suggests subtle gender preference may vary by nativity, with first- and second-generation American immigrants showing a greater preference for boys [71]. It is thus plausible that cultural factors that track with race/ethnicity or nativity could have contributed to the difference in the magnitude of association that we observed between our diverse cohorts. Moreover, it is well established that in Black and Hispanic communities, boys are often subjected to a range of negative stereotypes and biases related to aggression and violence that place them at greater risk for systemic disadvantages (e.g., school suspensions, incarceration) [72]. It is thus plausible that among minority communities, the increased pressure and parenting stress associated with raising boys may lead to greater psychological stress and precipitate the onset of depressive symptoms. Unfortunately, here we were unable to explore interactions with race/ethnicity or nativity owing to our limited sample size across these categorical variables in combination with sex and levels of prenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms. 041b061a72


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