Buy Scotch Tape
In 1930, Richard Drew, a 3M engineer, developed the first transparent sticky tape in St. Paul, Minnesota with material known as cellophane. Drew's inspiration came from watching auto-engineers try to achieve smooth paintings on two-color cars. It was in 1925 that he created Scotch masking tape, and later evolved the product to be transparent. In 1932, John A. Borden, also a 3M engineer, built the tape dispenser. During the Great Depression, the versatility and durability of Scotch tape led to a surge in demand, as customers used it to mend household items like books, curtains, clothing, etc. It had industrial applications as well: Goodyear used it to tape the inner supportive ribs of dirigibles to prevent corrosion.
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Although it is a trademark and a brand name, Scotch tape is sometimes used as a generic term. The Scotch brand includes many different constructions (backings, adhesives, etc.) and colors of tape.
The use of the term Scotch in the name was a pejorative meaning "parsimonious" in the 1920s and 1930s. The brand name Scotch came about around 1925 while Richard Drew was testing his first masking tape to determine how much adhesive he needed to add. The bodyshop painter became frustrated with the sample masking tape and exclaimed, "Take this tape back to those Scotch bosses of yours and tell them to put more adhesive on it!" The name was soon applied to the entire line of 3M tapes.
The Scotch brand, Scotch Tape and Magic Tape are registered trademarks of 3M. Besides using Scotch as a prefix in its brand names (Scotchgard, Scotchlite, and Scotch-Brite), the company also used the Scotch name for its (mainly professional) audiovisual magnetic tape products, until the early 1990s when the tapes were branded solely with the 3M logo. In 1996, 3M exited the magnetic tape business, selling its assets to Quantegy (which is a spin-off of Ampex).
Invented and introduced in 1961, it is the original matte finish tape. It appears frosty on the roll, yet is invisible on paper. This quality makes it popular for gift-wrapping. Magic Tape can be written upon with pen, pencil, or marker; comes in permanent and removable varieties; and resists drying out and yellowing.
In 1953, Soviet scientists showed that triboluminescence caused by peeling a roll of an unidentified Scotch brand tape in a vacuum can produce X-rays. In 2008, American scientists performed an experiment that showed the rays can be strong enough to leave an X-ray image of a finger on photographic paper.
That product is Scotch transparent tape, the tape that looks matte on the roll but turns invisible when you smooth it with your finger. Every year its manufacturer, 3M, sells enough of it to circle Earth 165 times.
He spent the next two years developing a tape that was sticky yet easy to remove. He experimented with everything from vegetable oil to natural tree gums. A company executive, William McKnight, told Drew to stop messing around and get back to his regular job, which he did, but Drew kept doing tape experiments on his own time.
After his tape successes, Drew was tapped to lead a Products Fabrication Laboratory for 3M, where he was given free rein to develop new ideas. He and his team would file 30 patents, for inventions from face masks to reflective sheeting for road signs. He would also become known as a great mentor, someone who helped young engineers hone their instincts and develop their ideas.
After he created masking tape, Drew began to experiment with adhesives to create another kind of pressure-sensitive tape. Cellophane was frequently used to wrap products in bakeries and grocery stores, but it could not seal the packages. Drew thought that he could use the cellophane itself, coated with an adhesive, to provide a good seal. His experiments led to the 1930 release of Scotch brand cellulose tape. Although DuPont invented a way to heat seal cellophane packages shortly thereafter, making the tape redundant, Scotch tape had already found a niche in the American home.
Even though Depression-era Americans had less disposable income than usual, Scotch tape became a necessity for the times. People discovered that the tape could mend items, and make them last longer. Scotch tape could repair items almost invisibly, giving household goods longer lives at a time when replacing them was out of the question. By 1939, 3M had started marketing Scotch tape in the familiar snail-shaped package to allow for easy tape dispensing.
Over the decades, Drew and other 3M inventors developed a wide range of other tapes. In 1945, Scotch brand tapes introduced their tartan design and in the 1950s, mascot Scotty McTape appeared in print and television advertising. In 1961, 3M released Scotch brand Magic Tape. The new tape was frosty on the roll, but it nearly disappeared when applied. Magic tape had a matte surface that could be written on, unlike previous transparent tapes, and it resisted yellowing with age.
In this study, we developed a method for flexible and conformable electronic devices on Scotch tape. Scotch tape, which serves as a remarkably flexible substrate, is simply attached on various objects as long as the adhesive of the tape adheres; as a result, Scotch tape electronics can be utilized to accomplish ubiquitous electronic systems for applications of interest. Another advantage of such a Scotch tape substrate is that the adhesive layer of the tape relaxes the strain when subjected to bending. We analyzed the mechanical strain applied to a bent Scotch tape substrate. Because of its soft layers, transistors on top of the Scotch tape, i.e., non-adhesive side, experience a significantly lower tensile strain as compared to regular polyimide under the same bending condition. We used graphene as the channel material. Graphene is not only one of the most representative flexible electronic materials14,15, but also a promising candidate for signal conditioning in electronics16,17. In particular, graphene devices are widely studied for the radio-frequency technology, which enables wireless communication18,19. Thus, the fabrication of graphene transistors on Scotch tape would be a significant step toward realizing ubiquitous electronics.
(a) Schematic of device structure. The Scotch tape substrate was attached on a silicon dioxide (SiO2) wafer during fabrication. (b) After device fabrication, the Scotch tape substrate was easily peeled off from the wafer. (c) The Scotch tape device was then attached on nonconventional objects such as banknote (W 50,000 Korean won), human skin and pen (Copyright 2013 Pohang University of Science and Technology).
The gate dielectric is one of the most important components in field-effect transistors (FETs). Especially, high capacitance with a low leakage current is essential for low-power electronic devices that can be operated by portable batteries. Several methods have been used to meet the dielectric requirements for flexible transistors: atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide (AlOX)21,22, ion-gel dielectrics23,24 and oxidation of aluminum thin films25. Among these approaches, the oxidation of aluminum thin films with oxygen plasma, which does not require high temperature, solvent, or high-purity gas, is a feasible process for a Scotch tape substrate. Previously, oxygen plasma treatment on aluminum was demonstrated to form a high-capacitance AlOX gate dielectric for flexible organic transistors; however, an additional self-assembled monolayer (SAM) prepared by soaking in a solution was required on AlOX or else the leakage current through the dielectric increased significantly25. As solution-processed SAMs are not suitable for Scotch tape substrates, we improved the fabrication process for oxidized AlOX by optimizing the plasma conditions so that a single AlOX layer could be used as the gate dielectric for GFETs.
Excessive surface strain induces the formation of cracks or irreversible deformation when a flexible device is bent beyond its limit, which in turn results in permanent device failure. Therefore, the range of feasible bending radii is determined by the maximum surface strain exerted on the active layer. The maximum strain at the top layer of the bent GFETs/Scotch was obtained by employing a finite element analysis with two-dimensional (2D) plain strain condition31. As shown in Fig. 5a, two model structures were studied: Scotch tape attached on a sheet of office paper (Fig. 4c) and a commonly used polyimide film as a control sample. When an oxidized AlOX/Al sample on polyimide was folded, the insulating property of AlOX was completely lost and crease marks remained. We imposed displacements on the bottom of the structures corresponding to bending radii and measured the lateral strain at the center of the top layer. In Fig. 5b, the Scotch tape sample exhibits a significantly lower surface strain compared to regular polyimide sample by a factor of five at a given bending radius. This numerical analysis can be understood in light of a 2D shear-lag model, which describes strain propagation in multilayers32. When the bottom layer is subject to a uniform strain εbottom, the shear-lag model predicts the maximum strain at the top by Equation 2
Donald Trump's ties have never been great, both the ones he wears and the ones he sells (which are often the same thing). We can overlook the fact that he uses a Windsor Knot over our preferred four-in-hand style, but the biggest factor contributing to his menswear fail is that he just ties his neckwear way too long, a good four inches beyond where your tie should stop. And today, we learned a very unfortunate by product of that sartorial choice: Donald Trump, the future president of the United States, scotch tapes the back of his tie to the front.
You see, because the President-elect doesn't leave enough slack on the thin end to reach the built-in loop, he's left with an unmoored sliver of silk that threatens his commanding suited man presence. And again, his solution is to use scotch tape, the very adhesive that's sitting next to you at your desks right now, to connect the two pieces. Sad! 041b061a72